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  • 技術共享
    Marine ornamental fish and water quality control
    〖 12/20,2013 | onclick 1803 〗
    1  the temperature
    Water temperature is an important environmental factor affecting the activities and growth of aquatic organisms , change in temperature will cause a series of changes in all the environmental factors that affect aquatic life to survive .
    Water as a control factor , the rate of metabolic reactions mainly on fish from the control action . Marine fish , molluscs and the water temperature is always changing , and 0.1 degrees away from the surrounding water , that they are cold-blooded animal . When the temperature changes , a variety of fish enzymes , lipids, molluscs belonging to narrow warm creatures, so when feeding aquarium must be strictly controlled temperature changes , in order to ensure the optimum temperature range : 26 ℃ ± 1 ℃, should not exceed 30 ℃.

    2  DO
    Is the oxygen content of the dissolved oxygen in the water is one of the important conditions for the survival of marine organisms . Fish mainly for oxygen for breathing by the contact with water gills software through other ways biological respiration . In order to ensure the survival of fish and biological normal reproduction, fully grown , the amount of dissolved oxygen can not be less than 5-7 mg / l. Thus, we need to know to make a lot of dissolved oxygen in the water , mainly from the following aspects :
    1, the increase in the quantity ( may be appropriate to increase the oxygen pump )
    2 , increasing the contact area with water bubbles ( try to make bubbles smaller size , can be a good air stone )
    3, increasing the contact time with water bubbles ( as far as possible on the bottom of the aquarium air stone to make bubbles in the water can stay longer )

    3  salinity
    Salinity of the sea water ornamental fish has a very important meaning , they have changed the meaning of life is meant salinity changes in osmotic pressure , salinity range for most marine fish can tolerate less than 2 ‰, salinity sudden changes in a wide range of often also one of the reasons for this narrow salt fish death. Salt content can be used density , salinity , conductivity three said seawater salinity . In addition to the density and conductivity and salinity in the premises , but also affected by temperature .

    4  nitrogen compounds (NH3, NO2, NO3)
    Not eating the bait , the fish 's metabolism and corpses rotting in the water will cause deterioration of water quality . Deterioration of water quality because of decaying substances to the water release a lot of nitrogen compounds such as ammonia (NH3) and to nitrate (NO2), which are living organisms on the water toxic substances. Long-term high levels of nitrite will slow the growth rate of organisms , reducing the biological immune system, cause serious or even biological death. The ammonia major impact on biological pathways through the following four :
    1) , the impact of ammonia
    Because water has a high concentration of ammonia, nitrogen , ammonia in the blood so that aquatic animals can not spread from the gills to the water when the animal feel difficulty ammonia , the first reaction is to reduce or stop feeding , to reduce the metabolic production of ammonia , the growth of Therefore, the surface slowly.
    2), changing the blood PH
     
    Ammonia in the blood immediately converted into ammonium (NH +4) and release OH-, the blood PH rise , seriously affect the stability of enzyme catalysis and cells.
    3), the impact of the oxygen-carrying function of aquatic organisms
    Ammonia will damage gill tissue , thus reducing the surface area of ??the gills , reducing oxygen exchange capacity , but also will cause the blood to produce red blood cells, tissue and bacteria change, reduce blood oxygen carrying capacity .
    4), the impact on the organization
    Histological lesions in a high concentration of ammonia, nitrogen will cause a lot of species kidney, liver , spleen , thyroid , and cause blood and other tissue .
    Will be converted to nitrite , nitrate, is a toxic substance is weak, when accumulated to a certain extent also cause harm to living organisms , these substances have to be removed. In an aquarium without any treatment within a few days it is possible to put the fish will accumulate ammonia to 1 mg / l, most fish kill , to maintain quality in a small aquarium environment must also follow the law of nature .
    According to the above, based on a variety of forms of nitrogen in the river appear , the most common is the nitrate, nitrite , ammonia , ammonium and organic forms of free nitrogen and various states , such as amino acids and proteins . Since the biological activity of various morphological changes in the chemical reaction may occur , and these changes can be recycled , that is reversible. E.g., nitrogen , organic phase , the protein can form a living body , the biological decomposition and bacterial death by chemical reaction into a small amount of ammonia and ammonia compounds such as ammonium hydroxide and ammonium carbonate .
    Ammonia and ammonium are simultaneously present in the water system , and ammonia (NH3) is highly toxic to biological , and ammonium (NH4) , but much safer . With the consequence that they exist in the aqueous system is an equilibrium reaction . This equilibrium constant is determined by the PH . We present the detection of ammonia water system is just a total value of ammonia , it is not possible to separate the detected ammonia. And ammonia water and ammonium is a constant in the same law, to maintain the equilibrium in aqueous PH = 7 , the reaction when the PH> 7 time to time move the ammonia , ammonium reduction . Since water is typically between 7.9-8.5 PH aqueous . So we change on sea water ammonia must maintain a high degree of vigilance. Increased ammonia can produce lethal or lethal biological toxic effects.
    A qualified test standard saltwater aquarium seawater three nitrogen should be: ammonia < 0.01 mg / l ; nitrite < 0.01 mg / ; nitrate <50 mg / l.

    5  the pH (PH)
    It is an acidic or alkaline water level value is presented. PH changes affect marine fish ( including mollusks ) is very serious , such as in acidic waters , fish can decrease blood PH , combined with the ability to make hemoglobin and oxygen is blocked, thus reducing the oxygen carrying capacity , resulting in partial pressure of oxygen in the blood decreases . In this case, even though the number of content in water is extremely rich in fish will die from lack of oxygen , the light also makes a sharp decline in fish metabolism , oxygen consumption decreases, cringe extremely sluggish activity does not love , but tend to make the skin mucosa and gill tissue under direct damage. PH also allow seawater to reduce the rate of nitrification process slows down the decomposition rate of organic compounds is reduced, resulting in physical regeneration slows water cycle , water quality worse. PH will cause the fish to reduce the destruction of reproductive function , liver damage , blindness and other serious symptoms. Therefore must not ignore the changes of PH .
    Determination of PH are mainly three ways : 1 , reagent assay ; 2 , dipstick assay ( necessary to prevent the paper from moisture ) 3, PH electronic tester

    6  the hardness
    Water hardness is dissolved in water " polyvalent metal" concentration , including calcium and magnesium and other polyvalent metal ions , in other words the majority of these metals ( 80 %) of the carbonate component , the acid chloride salts and salts thereof are usually residues .
    PH can truly aquarium carbonate hardness is stable , and the saltwater aquarium has undergone a period after the operation , on the establishment of a carbonate hardness of PH shock cushioning system , such as a large number of corpses produced by the decomposition of carbon dioxide , light fusion , trace element changes in water , adding water to make new changes in PH buffer , after a relatively short time and then be automatically restored to the original normal value .
    When carbonate hardness decreased , not only will the performance of PH instability, but also to make the aquarium fish air bladder swelling occurring disease , rickets and make the fish appear gills, scales loose phenomenon. Sufficient hardness of the water , algae will grow very well.

    7  CO
    In seawater aquarium , has a very close relationship between the PH, carbonate hardness and the two then fixed carbon . For carbon dioxide Coelenterate symbiotic unicellular zooxanthellae assimilation and decomposition is to shut want. If the single-cell algae zooxanthellae and other do not get enough carbon dioxide, will be forced to break down carbon dioxide in carbonated alien obtained the right to use carbonate hardness decreased, resulting in PH drop. In order to maintain the carbonate hardness build up red PH active system, we must add the appropriate carbon dioxide in seawater , but in the new established aquarium is the first three months without adding carbon dioxide , because carbon dioxide in water at the moment is sufficient , during this time the gradual establishment of seawater and ecological environment stabilizes , once discovered PH seawater down to 7.9 or less , it should be added carbon dioxide , and carbon dioxide is added in two ways:
    1), the direct input of carbon dioxide . ( Use of diffusers, etc. produced by the reaction of carbon dioxide feed gas directly to the water )
    2), the use of the calcium reactor.

    8  phosphate
    Phosphorus is a nutrient seawater algae growth , excess phosphorus will make seawater aquarium algae grow out of control , greatly affect the viewing, and this situation will continue as bait phosphorus entering the water worse. Therefore, we must strictly control phosphate into Hailv , we require saltwater aquarium in the phosphate content of not more than 1 mg / l .

    9  copper ions
    Copper ions in seawater creatures are toxic in many disinfectants, pesticides are rich in copper ions in seawater invertebrate mollusks , and some algae are extremely sensitive to copper ions . To prevent accidents, we have measured the concentration of copper ions periodically , to maintain the concentration of copper ions is shown in the 0.1 mg / liter. In order to protect the health of the fish , in the treatment of sick fish to another vessel required to groan and then spraying the diseased fish , absolutely can not be placed within the mollusk cast saltwater aquarium drugs with copper ions , in order to to prevent accidents, do not cast all the medicines recommended to mollusks aquarium , including things like water purification agent , in case of emergency.

    10  iron ions
    Seaweed sheet iron not only offers emerald green pigment , nutrients are also an important catalyst saltwater aquarium corpse decomposition biotin , or unicellular zooxanthellae required , various mollusks because of the presence of iron ions become color even more gorgeous, nitrifying bacteria need iron to help enhance the vitality of its oxidation function , we ask in seawater aquarium ferric ion concentration should be maintained at 0.05-0.1 mg / l.

    11  Portland
    Silicon is the main component of quartz sand , and therefore the content of natural seawater is rich in silicon , which makes a particularly strong growth of alginate . In order to control the growth of brown algae silicate content must be controlled . In the preparation of artificial seawater should pay attention to remove silicates. When you add factors such as loss due to evaporation of moisture , but also pay attention to reduce the impact of silicate , preferably using deionized water. When laying in a saltwater aquarium sand bottom , do not try to contain two of the three sand -rich , high hardness of the water is relatively high silicon processing . Silicon content in seawater aquarium shall not exceed 5 mg / l .

    12  other trace elements
    We all environmental seawater aquarium biological provided must try to meet the ecological balance of the environment , must not be arbitrarily changed , these higher levels of trace elements particularly important trace elements, such as aquatic organisms need iron, arsenic , iodine, copper , etc., so after running a saltwater aquarium for quite some time , we must increase the number of its proper trace elements. To supplement the consumption of sea creatures , to maintain the balance of seawater aquarium .

    13  redox potential
    Many reactions and many water and wastewater treatment processes in natural water occurs , the oxidation -reduction reaction plays a very important role. Treatment often applied in redox reactions to change the chemical nature of some of the ingredients in wastewater , such as the oxidation reaction.
    Play in the aquarium healthy populations of nitrifying bacteria are aerobic , it must have sufficient oxygen conditions can play a role . Contamination in the water , in the aerobic microorganisms will be sufficient oxygen oxidation reaction of the oxidation of organic matter in water and other compounds. However, a decrease in oxygen , then it will gradually replace the anaerobic aerobic microorganisms to become the dominant populations , more dirty water and the lower the oxygen content of its role in the more anaerobic an edge , the lower the redox potential , on the contrary , when the water more cleaning , the higher redox potential. Therefore, we can according to the redox potential of water to determine the water quality , when the redox potential is maintained at 300-350 mV , it means that nitrifying bacteria in the water are effective decomposition of organic compounds, organic waste content at this time reaches the minimum value , due to the accumulation of organic waste , less oxidation deterioration of water quality , the oxidation -reduction potential at this time will be less than 200 mV.
    Oxidation of the redox potential is made ??by a sensor with a platinum redox meter to assay. Potential difference between the electrode and the platinum ions in water that is generated by the electrode potential , which determines the oxidation reduction ability of water , as long as the platinum electrode surface and the water between the chemical potential, i.e., the type in which the electron transfer , i.e. the redox potential is formed .
    Platinum electrode immersed in water 15-20 minutes needed to be to stabilize the sensor values ??, can not touch the electrode after use with a specific cleaning solution must be cleaned , and a fine brush to remove algae on the surface , to ensure that it reliability reused .
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